Corporate governance report

Strong and appropriate governance supporting business growth

‘The composition of the Board
remains key to achieving the
Group’s strategic objectives.’

Dear shareholder

Good governance is central to how we do business at Prudential. The Board ensures that our governance policies, structures and processes are strong and appropriate, and play a key part in supporting the growth of the business.

In a world of ever-increasing complexity and connectedness, governance requirements are continually developing. As well as complying with relevant codes, we are always well prepared for new developments, keeping abreast of upcoming changes and ensuring that our governance is adjusted accordingly.

A vital part of good governance is transparency, and we are committed to reporting on our governance as clearly as possible, ensuring that it remains the best available, and continues to make a strong contribution to the long-term success of the Group.

Paul Manduca


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Role of the Board

The Board is accountable for the long-term success of the Group and for providing leadership within a framework of effective controls. The control environment enables the Board to identify significant risks and apply appropriate measures to manage and mitigate them. The Board is responsible for setting strategic targets and for ensuring that the Group is suitably resourced to achieve those targets. In doing so, the Board takes account of its responsibilities to the Group’s stakeholders, including the Group’s employees, shareholders, suppliers and the communities in which Prudential operates.

The Board has terms of reference which specifically set out matters reserved for its decision. These include matters such as setting the Group’s strategy and monitoring its implementation, the approval of annual budgets and business plans, as well as the risk appetite of the Group and its capital and liquidity positions. The Board has approved a governance framework, and under these procedures all business units are required to seek approval from the Board for matters exceeding pre-determined authority limits.

The Board has delegated authority to a number of board committees which assist the Board in delivering its responsibilities and ensuring that there is appropriate independent oversight of internal control and risk management. Each of these committees has established terms of reference and is comprised of independent non-executive directors, with the exception of the Nomination Committee which, in keeping with the provisions of the UK Corporate Governance Code (‘UK Code’), is chaired by the Chairman. The terms of reference for the Board and its committees are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain in line with best practice and the committees continue to have appropriate authority to fulfil their responsibilities, without creating unnecessary duplication of work.

The Board has also delegated authority for the operational management of the Group’s businesses to the Group Chief Executive for execution or further delegation by him in respect of matters which are necessary for the effective day-to-day running and management of the business. The chief executive of each business unit has authority for the management of that respective business unit and each has established a management board comprised of its most senior executives.

In performing its duties, the Board has access to the services of the Group Company Secretary who advises on corporate governance matters, Board procedures and compliance with the applicable rules and regulations. Directors have the right to seek independent professional advice at the Group’s expense and copies of such advice are circulated to other directors where applicable and appropriate.

Roles and responsibilities

The roles of the Chairman and Group Chief Executive are separate and clearly defined. The scope of these roles is approved and kept under regular review by the Board so that no individual has unfettered decision-making powers.

The full biographical details of the directors, including the skills and experience they bring to the Board, can be found in the Board of directors.


The Chairman is responsible for the leadership and governance of the Board, and ensuring that sufficient time is available for discussion of all agenda items. The Chairman facilitates the contribution of the non-executive directors and fosters constructive relationships between the non-executive and executive directors by promoting a culture of openness and debate.

Group Chief Executive

The Group Chief Executive is responsible for the management of the Group and the implementation of the strategy and policy approved by the Board.

Senior Independent Director

The principal responsibilities of the Senior Independent Director are to act as a conduit to the Board for the communication of shareholder concerns when other channels may be inappropriate and to lead the non-executive directors in carrying out the performance evaluation of the Chairman.

Non-executive directors

The non-executive directors are independent of management, bringing effective and constructive challenge to the deliberations of the Board.

Succession planning

The Board is actively engaged in succession planning for both executive and non-executive roles to ensure that Board composition is regularly refreshed and that the Board retains its effectiveness at all times. This is delivered through an established review process applied across all businesses which covers both executive director and senior management succession and development, and also through the work of the Nomination Committee as described more fully in the Nomination Committee report. The Board considers annually the outcome of the review and any actions arising from the review are implemented as part of the management development agenda.

Board performance evaluation

The 2013 performance evaluation of the Board and its principal committees was internally facilitated through the use of a questionnaire and carried out by the Chairman and Group Company Secretary. The findings were presented to the Board in February 2014 and an action plan is being agreed to address any areas identified by the review. In accordance with the UK Code, it is intended that the 2014 review will be carried out by external facilitators.

The performance of the non-executive directors and the Group Chief Executive is evaluated by the Chairman in individual meetings. Philip Remnant, the Senior Independent Director, led the non-executive directors in a performance evaluation of the Chairman.

Executive directors are subject to regular review and the Group Chief Executive individually appraises the performance of each of the executive directors as part of the annual Group-wide performance evaluation of all staff.

2012 Board performance evaluation

A summary of the Board’s progress against a number of actions arising from its 2012 effectiveness review can be found below:

Theme Action taken
Information flows to the Board and principal committees Improvements to Board papers continued with a view to streamlining and enhancing the flow of information to the Board and its committees facilitating effective decision making
Senior leadership Further opportunities for the Board to meet senior leadership across the Group were included in the programme of business for the Board and will continue to be included going forward
Delegation of authority The Board reviewed the delegations of its authority, confirming that these continued to be appropriate for the business carried out by the Group
Review of terms of reference A review of the terms of reference was carried out in order to ensure that these remained in line with best practice and that the committees continued to have appropriate authority to fulfil their responsibilities without creating duplication of activities
Committee membership Philip Remnant and Alice Schroeder were appointed to the Audit Committee following the regular review of membership for the principal committees


The Group seeks, through its diversity policy, to encourage the recruitment and retention of talented individuals from a diverse range of backgrounds. Furthermore, the Board remains committed to inclusion in all its forms and believes that leading companies seek out, and not simply tolerate, diversity.

The inclusion of women in the recruitment process extends to the Board and is an important diversity consideration during searches for new Board members. Prudential embraces the proposition that more women on boards would be advantageous to companies, as well as to society at large. The Group remains duty bound to recruit the best available talent, and although the Board does not endorse quotas, it does commit to having an increasing representation of women in senior positions in the Group and on the Board.

Board composition

Chairman (6%), Executive (44%), Non-executive (50%)

Regional experience

United Kingdon (44%), Global (31%), Asia (13%), United States (12%)


Government/regulatory (12%), Other financial services (19%), Finance (38%), Insurance (31%)

Tenure of non-executive directors

0-3 years (62%), 4-6 years (13%), 7-9 years (25%)

Board gender composition

Male (81%), Female (19%)

Group governance

The Board is responsible for establishing a system of internal control and for reviewing its effectiveness. To achieve this, the Board has established frameworks for internal governance, risk and corporate responsibility. The system is designed to manage rather than eliminate the risk of failure to achieve business objectives and can only provide reasonable and not absolute assurance against material misstatement or loss.

The governance framework principally relates to the operational management of the Group’s businesses and includes pre-determined authority limits, delegated by the Board, in respect of matters which are necessary for the effective day-to-day running and management of the business. The system is regularly reviewed and complies with the UK Code and Corporate Governance Code issued by the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (the ‘HK Code’), as well as the relevant provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In complying with the UK Code, the Group follows the 2005 Turnbull Guidance relating to the sections of the UK Code dealing with risk management and internal control.

The Chief Executive and Chief Financial Officer of each business unit, as well as the senior management in Group Head Office, annually certify compliance with the Group’s governance, internal control and risk management requirements. The risk management function reviewed any matters identified by the certification process, and also assessed the risk and control issues that arose and were reported during the year. This included routine and exception-based risk reporting, matters identified and reported by other Group Head Office oversight functions, and the findings from the work of the internal audit function, which executes risk-based audit plans throughout the Group. The results were reviewed by the Audit Committee as described in the Audit Committee report.

In line with the Turnbull Guidance, the certification provided above does not apply to certain material joint ventures where the Group does not exercise full management control. In these cases, the Group satisfies itself that suitable governance and risk management arrangements are in place to protect the Group’s interests. However, the relevant Group company which is party to the joint venture must, in respect of any services it provides in support of the joint venture, comply with the requirements of the Group’s internal governance framework.

Governance framework

Group governance framework: Documents the Group’s internal control policies and processes in an online manual, including the Group’s risk framework, Code of Business Conduct and detailed policies on key operational and financial risks. Business units are also required to follow any additional processes necessary to comply with local statutory and regulatory requirements.

Group risk framework: Describes the Group’s approach to risk management and the key risk arrangements and standards for risk management and internal control which support compliance with the Group’s internal, statutory and regulatory requirements. The strategic report provides further detail on Prudential’s risk appetite and exposures in the Group Chief Risk Officer’s report and corporate responsibility activities in the Corporate responsibility review. Further details on the procedures for the management of risk and the systems of internal control operated by the Group are given in the section on risk governance.

Corporate responsibility framework: Provides an overview of the Group-wide philosophy and approach to corporate responsibility, supports the Group’s commercial focus and the increasing challenges faced including changes in stakeholder expectations. A key element is the Group Code of Business Conduct which sets out the ethical standards the Board requires of itself, employees, agents and others working on behalf of the Group, in their dealings with employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers and competitors in the wider community and in respect of the environment.

Internal control

The Board reviewed the effectiveness of the system of internal control in February 2014, covering all material controls, including financial, operational and compliance controls, risk management systems and the adequacy of the resources, qualifications and experience of staff of the Group’s accounting and financial reporting function. The Board confirms that there is an ongoing process for identifying, evaluating and managing the significant risks faced by the Group, which has been in place throughout the period and up to the date of this report, and confirms that the system remains effective.

Induction and development

The Group Company Secretary supports the Chairman in providing tailored induction programmes for new directors and ongoing development for all directors. On appointment, all directors embark upon a wide-ranging induction programme covering, amongst other things, the principal bases of accounting for the Group’s results, the role of the Board and its key committees and the ambit of the internal audit and risk management functions. In addition, they receive detailed briefings on the Group’s principal businesses, its product range, the markets in which it operates and the overall competitive environment. These sessions are facilitated through meetings with executive management and other senior members of the management team. Other areas addressed include the directors’ obligations under the different listing regimes, legal issues affecting directors of financial services companies, the Group’s governance arrangements and its investor relations programme as well as its remuneration policies.

Throughout their period in office, directors are regularly updated on the Group’s businesses and the regulatory and industry-specific environments in which it operates, as well as on their legal and other duties and obligations as directors, where appropriate. The scope of these updates is reviewed in line with the requirements of the business and can be in the form of written reports to the Board or presentations by senior executives or external advisers where appropriate. In order to enhance their knowledge and effectiveness throughout their term in office, non-executive directors serving on key committees are updated regularly on matters specific to the relevant committee and receive presentations from senior executives on topics of interest to them.

Ongoing professional development was undertaken by all directors during 2013. This included a number of sector-specific and business issues, as well as legal, accounting and regulatory changes and developments. A number of business unit chief executive officers, together with relevant senior executives, gave presentations to the Board during the course of the year on the challenges and opportunities currently faced by their business unit. In addition, senior managers within certain head office functions presented to the Board key issues currently facing their function. Members of the Audit Committee have the option to attend meetings of the business unit audit committees to aid their understanding of topical matters of interest to them and how they are handled by the Group.

Non-executive directors also received updates and briefings relevant to their duties as directors of a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Terms of appointment for non-executive directors

Non-executive directors are appointed on the understanding that they serve an initial term of three years. Subject to review by the Nomination Committee, it would be expected that they would serve a second term of three years. In both instances, non-executive directors remain subject to annual election at the Annual General Meeting. After six years of service, non-executive directors may be appointed for a further year, up to a maximum of three years, subject to rigorous annual review by the Nomination Committee and annual election at the Annual General Meeting. Good governance does not support the practice of serving longer than nine years on the Board as a non-executive director.

The terms and conditions of all directors’ appointments are available for inspection at the Company’s registered office during normal business hours and at the Annual General Meeting.


Jackie Hunt, Anthony Nightingale and Alice Schroeder will stand for election for the first time at the 2014 Annual General Meeting. In keeping with the provisions of the UK Code, all other directors will stand for re-election.

The Board believes that the non-executive directors bring a wide range of business, financial and international experience to the Board and its committees.


The independence of the non-executive directors is determined with reference to the UK and HK Codes. Prudential is required to affirm annually the independence of all non-executive directors under the Hong Kong Listing Rules and also the independence of its Audit Committee members under the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation. The Board has appropriate processes in place to manage any potential conflicts of interest.

Throughout the year, the non-executive directors were considered by the Board to be independent in character and judgement and met the criteria for independence as set out in the UK and HK Codes. The Company has received confirmation of independence from each of the independent non-executive directors as required by the Hong Kong Listing Rules.

Alistair Johnston was a partner in the Group’s auditor, KPMG, from 1986 to 2010. However, he did not audit the Prudential Group and he no longer has any financial or other interest in KPMG. The Board does not consider that this former relationship with KPMG affects Alistair’s status as an independent director of Prudential.

Prudential is one of the UK’s largest institutional investors and the Board does not believe that this compromises the independence of those non-executive directors who are on the boards of companies in which the Group has a shareholding. The Board also believes that such shareholdings should not preclude the Company from having the most appropriate and highest calibre non-executive directors.

Conflicts of interest

Directors have a statutory duty to avoid conflicts of interest with the Company. The Company’s Articles of Association allow its directors to authorise conflicts of interest and the Board has adopted a policy and effective procedures to manage and, where appropriate, approve conflicts or potential conflicts of interest. Under these procedures, directors are required to declare all directorships or other appointments to companies which are not part of the Group, along with other appointments which could result in conflicts or could give rise to a potential conflict.

The Nomination Committee, or the Board where appropriate, evaluates and approves each such situation individually, where applicable, and the Nomination Committee annually reviews such declarations prior to the publication of the Annual Report.

Directors’ interests

Individual directors’ interests are set out in the directors’ remuneration report.

External appointments

Directors may hold directorships or other significant interests in companies outside the Group which may have business relationships with the Group.

Non-executive directors may serve on a number of other boards, review or advisory groups and charitable trusts, provided that they are able to demonstrate satisfactory time commitment to their role at Prudential and that they discuss any new appointment with the Chairman prior to accepting. This ensures that they do not compromise their independence and that any potential conflicts of interest and any possible issues arising out of the time commitments required by the new role can be identified and addressed appropriately. The major commitments of our non-executive directors are detailed in their biographies in the Board of directors.

Executive directors may accept external directorships and retain any fees earned from those directorships subject to prior discussion with the Group Chief Executive and always provided that they do not lead to any conflicts of interest.

In line with the UK Code, executive directors would not be expected to hold more than one non-executive directorship, nor the chairmanship, of a FTSE 100 company. Some of our executive directors hold directorships or trustee positions of unquoted companies or institutions. Details of any fees retained are included in the Annual report on remuneration.

Directors’ indemnities and protections

Suitable insurance cover is in place in respect of legal action against directors and senior managers of companies within the Prudential Group. Protection for directors, and certain senior managers, of companies within the Group, against personal financial exposure which may be incurred in their capacity as such, is also provided. These include qualifying third-party indemnity provisions (as defined by the Companies Act 2006) for the benefit of directors of Prudential plc and other such persons including, where applicable, in their capacity as directors of other companies within the Group. These indemnities were in force during 2013 and remain in force.

In addition, the Company’s Articles of Association permit the directors and officers of the Company to be indemnified in respect of liabilities incurred as a result of their office.


The Board met on 10 occasions during the year, which included one meeting held at the Group’s overseas operations in Thailand. These meetings enable the directors to develop a fuller understanding of the Group’s operations and to meet with the senior management.

One overseas strategy event was held in the US and the Board also met on one additional occasion to address business outside of the usual scheduled meetings.

Where a director was unable to attend Board meetings, their views were canvassed by the Chairman prior to the meeting.

Table 1 (below) details the number of Board and Committee meetings attended by each director during the year.

During the year, the Chairman met with the non-executive directors without the executive directors being present on seven occasions.

The Board, or the members in a general meeting, may appoint directors up to a maximum total number of 20 as set out in the Company’s Articles of Association. The removal and resignation of the directors is governed by the relevant provisions of the Companies Act 2006, the UK and HK Codes and the Company’s Articles of Association.

In the ordinary course of business, Board and committee papers are provided approximately one week in advance of each meeting.

Table 1

Download as excel file

  Board (scheduled) Board (additional) Overall attendance
  1. Rob Devey was eligible to attend eight meetings during the year, up until his resignation on 5 September 2013.
  2. Jackie Hunt was eligible to attend three meetings during the year, from the date of her appointment.
  3. Keki Dadiseth was eligible to attend four meeting during the year, up until his resignation on 1 May 2013.
  4. Michael Garrett was eligible to attend eight meetings during the year, up until his resignation on 31 August 2013.
  5. Anthony Nightingale was eligible to attend six meetings during the year, from the date of his appointment.
  6. Alice Schroeder was eligible to attend six meetings during the year, from the date of her appointment.
Number of meetings held 10 1  
Paul Manduca 10 1 100%
Executive directors      
Tidjane Thiam 10 1 100%
Nic Nicandrou 10 1 100%
Rob Devey1 7 1 100%
John Foley 10 1 100%
Jackie Hunt2 3 n/a 100%
Michael McLintock 10 1 100%
Barry Stowe 10 1 100%
Mike Wells 10 1 100%
Non-executive directors      
Keki Dadiseth3 0 1 25%
Howard Davies 10 1 100%
Michael Garrett4 7 1 100%
Ann Godbehere 10 1 100%
Alistair Johnston 10 1 100%
Kai Nargolwala 10 1 100%
Anthony Nightingale5 6 n/a 100%
Philip Remnant 10 1 100%
Alice Schroeder6 6 n/a 100%
Lord Turnbull 10 1 100%

Powers of the Board

The Board may exercise all powers conferred on it by the Company’s Articles of Association and the Companies Act 2006. This includes the powers of the Company to borrow money and to mortgage or charge any of its assets (subject to the limitations set out in the Companies Act 2006 and the Company’s Articles of Association) and to give a guarantee, security or indemnity in respect of a debt or other obligation of the Company.

Board committees

Corporate governance framework

The Board has established Audit, Remuneration, Nomination and Risk Committees as principal standing committees of the Board. These committees form a key element of the Group’s corporate governance framework.

During the year, the Board constituted a Group Disclosure Committee with the purpose of assisting the Company in fulfilling its obligations for the release of any inside information under the various listing requirements to which the Company is subject. A Standing Committee was also constituted with authority to deal with business requiring attention between scheduled Board meetings.

The committee chairmen report to the Board on matters of significance after each meeting. Each Board committee has written terms of reference which were reviewed during the course of the year to ensure that these remained in line with best practice and that each committee continued to have suitable delegated authority to fulfil their responsibilities without creating duplication of activities. Copies of the updated terms of reference can be found on the Company’s website.

The committees have access to the services of the Group Company Secretary and may seek external professional advice at the Company’s expense.

The effectiveness of the committees is considered annually as part of the overall performance review of the Board. Details of the evaluation process are set out more fully in the Corporate governance report.

A report on the activities undertaken by each committee during the course of the year is set out in the Board committees section.

[ Top level | Board ] [ Second level | Committee group: Audit Committee, Risk Committee, Remuneration Committee, Nomination Committee | Group Chief Executive | Group Executive Committee ]
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